The sunshine finally made an appearance on the last day of the current dig. The group worked hard to solve the riddle of the trench.
Context 3 consisted of a surface of stones of varying sizes. In the west of the trench the stone seemed more compact. However, on investigation it was found that Context 3 extended through the west and east of the trench. The soil in the centre of the trench was orange and there were fewer stones. The soil in the west of the trench continued to be darker (black) which seemed to suggest burning has occurred in the vicinity.
A sondage was cut in the centre of the trench (Context 4). This allowed the depth of the deposits to be seen. Darker areas were thought to be the result of animal or plant activity. The orange of Context 4 is thought to be the natural. This knowledge will be important for future investigations.
It was decided to close the trench down. The area does not seem to relate to occupation. There were few finds in Context 3 and 4. Further investigation is required in this area.
There were very few finds on Day 3. There were some pieces of chert, one of which may have been worked. A small fragment of slate was found, which has not been found in other areas of the site.
All images attributed to Catherine Rousseau Jones
Mist and drizzle welcomed us to Calf Hill for the second day of digging. Work was continued in Trench 7, working through Context 1 and Context 2.
The grass roots were removed from the centre and east of the trench by light mattocking. Following this the trench was trowelled until Context 2 began to be seen. Mattocking was again used in the east of the trench to remove loose stones. The nature of the trench seems to have different areas. The western side has dark soil and compacted stones. The centre shows more orange soil with few stones. The east still has some large stones and an area of burning.
The east of the trench continued to produce glass as well as a small piece of brown glaze pot. The glass seems to have some writing on it with “ss” visible and also wavy line decoration. A metal object came from the west of the trench. Context 2 provided our first chert of the dig, with a large piece coming from the feature in the west of the trench.
All images. Attribution: Catherine Rousseau Jones
27th July 2019
Clouds, showers and increasingly heavy rain accompanied the start of our summer dig on Calf Hill. Trench 7 (2m x 6m) was opened to investigate an anomaly identified on a geophysical survey in 2018.
Following removal of the turf, the group worked on trowelling Context 1. The trench showed differences in soil colour between the east and west of the trench. The western side of the trench showed darker soil with a large number of quartz inclusions. The eastern side of the trench showed more sandy soil. Trowelling in this side of the trench was made difficult by the large number of grass roots.
Work was halted before 2pm due to increasingly heavy rain.
Context 1 provided a range of dateable finds which have been absent in other areas of the site. From the finds, this level can be loosely dated to after 1800 and before 1971. Further investigation into the finds is required.
All images attributed to C. Rousseau Jones
On a hot summer’s day (yes, we do occasionally get those up north), a small group visited the excavation of a series of First World War practice trenches located within Long Wood, an area of ancient semi-natural woodland located in Copley, Calderdale, West Yorkshire.
The site was initially recorded during winter 2017 as part of the National Lottery Heritage Funded, Pennine Prospects led Celebrating Our Woodland Heritage project. However, very little is known about when the trenches were formed, and who excavated them.
We enjoyed a guided tour of the trenches by Chris Atkinson, and found some similarities with our excavations. We were also interested by the old trackway crossing the wood.
Return journey via Todmorden for some much needed tea and cake.
Thanks to Chris for enabling our visit. Thanks to Roger for chauffeuring us in air conditioned luxury.
C.Rousseau-Jones July 2019
Our summer event, Flowers and Voices was held at Pendle Heritage Centre.
Dave from Conservation Services showed us how to make lime mortar. (5 parts sand to 2 parts lime and not much water). He used the mortar on the old garden wall (which is in great need of repointing) and applied it between the stones, not strap pointing.
Later, medical herbalist Barbara Wilkinson led us round the beautiful walled garden, stopping beside herbs and explaining their use. Pausing beside loosestrife she commented that yellow flowers attract insects, so wearing yellow clothes invites their attention! Also to stop insects entering the house hang sprays of tansy (the next herb we looked at) by doors and windows.
Meanwhile in the barn Adrian Hartley was playing a keyboard and enthusiastically singing Lancashire dialect songs.
In the afternoon we were entertained by Colne Orpheus male voice choir. Established in 1886, the Orpheus claims to have the longest unbroken history of any English male voice choir. The programme contained “I dreamed a dream”, now associated with Susan Boyle’s performance on “Britain’s got Talent” ten years ago. (How time doth fly), “Bridge over Troubled Water”, “76 trombones” and several others. They are recruiting new members: look at their website if interested.
During the musical entertainment in the barn people were tucking into tea and cakes.
A beekeeper explained how the hive is constructed. Apparently the smoker, used to drive the bees lower down the hive so that the honey combs can be harvested, is difficult to keep alight using smouldering cardboard, so he introduces a small piece of firelighter is introduced, but care is needed as it could produce a flame thrower instead!
I was introduced to the “Bowland Bard” Mick Neary who recited to me a moving poem about First World War Lancashire soldiers.
There were lots of stalls with an environmental slant including our very own Pendle Archaeology Group. PAG’s stall featured a model of the area of the latest dig- a papier-mâché wonder. The tombola stall was quite popular. A young lad won a bottle of wine which was quickly confiscated by his father!
All in all a very enjoyable day.
Banner Image: Herbalist, Barbara Wilkinson explains the medicinal use of common garden plants in the Heritage Garden. Attribution: A Hardman
On a sunny day, the group set off from Anna’s Café to explore the hillsides and valley of Weir, our main objective being the mysterious Broadclough Dykes. Sites in the area date from prehistory to the industrial revolution and beyond.
Weir contains houses of many dates. It allowed the group to see water-shot coursing and find out about how it can be used to date houses. The group were interested to learn about the Co-operative store and the village’s 1918 war memorial1.
Walking past Weir Hotel, the group climbed to the old turnpike road. The road dates from 1755 and tolls were paid on the road until 18802. There are interesting earthworks on both sides of the road, including the site of quarry.
We continued on a rarely used footpath to Broadclough Dykes. The Dykes were described by Dr Whitaker in 18183 as “an entrenchment to which no tradition is annexed that may serve to ascertain either its antiquity, or the end it was designed to answer.” Although the group did not come to a conclusion about the date or use of the earthwork, we did decide that they are spectacular and very interesting.
Leaving Broadclough Dykes, we passed remains of Broadclough Colliery Coal Mine and had a good view of Broadclough Mill. The Grade 2 Broadclough Mill was built in 1824 as successful water powered woollen mill which became steam powered by the 1830s, becoming a cotton spinning mill following enlargement2.
There were more remains to be viewed on Dog Pits Lane. The old bridge is Grade 2 listed and said to date from the 18th century or before. The remains of Dog Pits Mill, a water mill predating Broadclough Mill, could be seen amongst the trees.
Following a path past farms of different periods, the group returned on Weir Lane to Anna’s Café for further refreshments.
PAG would like to thank the landowners who allowed the group access to Broadclough Dykes, which are in area between footpaths and therefore not usually accessible.
Thomas Dunham Whitaker 1818 An history of the original parish of Whalley, and honor of Clitheroe : in the counties of Lancaster and York
The Roman Fort Derventio near Malton with the adjoining vicus was the destination for an excellent Pendle Archaeology Group day trip.
The morning weather was kind to the group with plenty of sunshine and little rain. After setting off bright and early from various starting points and visiting a coffee shop, the group gathered at The Old Lodge, Malton. We were met by Senior Lecturer Steve Roskams from the Archaeology Department of the University of York.
The Roman Fort Derventio
Derventio Brigantium to give it its full name was founded around AD71 but both a Norman castle and Elizabethan house were later erected on the site. After an introductory talk, we walked out of the fort where students are currently carrying out excavations under the direction of Steve. Originally excavated in the 1930s, Time Team have also dug on this site and a video can be seen here.
We learnt about the Romans in Malton, and the place of Roman Malton within Roman Britain. We were excited to handle some Roman finds including pottery, a coin, a key and a glass bead. It was probably 1500 years since these last saw the light of day!
Following our tour of the site, the group enjoyed some free time. Activities included visiting Malton museum (small but interesting), walking around Malton itself (interesting buildings) and visiting a café (again!). Rain and hail then stopped play, but the group enjoyed an interesting and educational trip.
Our thanks to Catherine Rousseau-Jones for organising it and Steve Roskams for a fascinating tour.
Why not join us at a future event? We really are a friendly bunch!
After a swift AGM and the appointment of a new Chairman and Treasurer and big Thankyou to David Taylor our retiring chairman for all his work over many years and a thankyou to Roger Grimshaw for his work as Treasurer for several years and for dragging the Friends into the 21st Century, the group enjoyed a talk by Maggie Dickinson.
Maggie is a speaker who is totally in control of her subject and she mesmerised her audience with her knowledge of Pack Horse (PH) Bridges and routes. She recounted that most of these bridges were built between 1050 and 1750 and that they were no more than six feet wide and had low sides in order to accommodate the panniers. They were built without using lime mortar. The head horse often wore PH bells which gave off a different sound depending on which way the horses turned. Useful on a dark, misty day on the moors. Sometimes the ponies were known as ‘limegals’ after the burden they carried. Coal, iron, lead and other materials were also transported by these busy routes. In Clitheroe before 1750 over a 1,000 packhorses a day passed through the area.
Galloway Gate at the top of Dentdale was named after the Galloway ponies. The name causeway comes from the French causies and there is a causeway from the top of Cliviger to Heptonstall, the cloth was carried to the Piece Hall there.
The wool carried by packhorses was important to the survival also of towns like Kendal, their motto being ‘Pannis mihi Pannus’, meaning’Wool is my trade’. Robert Tebay was a major carrier and his influence in the tradse is to be noted in Kendal Museum today. Kendal Green was a famous cloth known widely for its quality. Some ancient glass can still be seen in the Carriers Arms in Kendal. Netherbridge was enlarged and pantage paid in the 1300’s and apparently Kendal bowmen were present at the battles of Crecy, Poitiers and Agincourt.
Salt was another import PH commodity, witness areas known as Salterforth, Barnoldswick. Cross Cannonby Saltpans was where salt was gathered and then transported and today you can see the grave stone of a salt tax collector in the church there.
Maggie was a most interesting speaker and the audience were very appreciative recipients of her knowledge she has an amazing recall of many PH tracks and paths, many of them within the local area.
The coming of the turnpike roads, canals and railways saw the demise of the PH routes, goods were shifted more quickly and cheaply leaving tracks and paths, for those who are not aware of PH routes, with something to puzzle over.
And did you know?
Over 3,000 pairs of hand knitted woollen stockings were made every week in the Kendal/Dent area in the 18thC.
That the well known and photographed Ashness bridge is also a well known PH bridge.
We saw a rare photograph of the Cloth Hall at Colne.
Drovers and PH men were two separate entities.
Packhorses would have carried graphite known to be the finest in the world. Witness the development of the Lakeland Pencil Company. This was under the control of the Mines Royal in the 17th C.
Banner Image: Old Pack Horse Bridge, Carrbridge. Attribution: Gordon McKinlay
If you weren’t there you missed a smashing trip and several walks through history! A good journey, good driver, good friendships and a good time was had by all.
We started with a visit to Brymbo where this old iron and steel works is being partly restored to inform folks of the social and industrial heritage of the area. John Wilkinson who founded the works in 1793 was an amazing chap, an entreupenur who dabbled in many things – the Richard Branson of his day – with ‘bells on’. He was the first true industrialist, helping to drive forward the early Industrial Revolution, he inspired the world’s first iron bridge and boat, he was known as the ‘father’ of the machine tool industry, the South Staffs Iron industry and he received awards for his farming practices. Phew… but hold on… he also had ownership and interests in five banks..and invested in copper, tin and arsenic mining and that isn’t the end of his talents.
They are doing great work still at Brymbo today in preserving this heritage for future generations. Interestingly they are also aiming to grow all species of European pear trees here.
We tasted delicious pear juice and also went back in Deep Time and viewed fossils of a Petrified Forest 314 million years old. We handled ironstone from outer space from trillions of years ago. Something to do with compressed stars and a Red Dwarf!
Onto the nearby town of Wrexham and relatively modern history, Brymbo Man who lived and was buried in the Bronze Age, about 3,500 years ago. In more modern times The Parish Church of St. Giles was a little gem being built in its present form towards the end of the 15th C. There’s an interesting 16th C. Doom painting and Nave Roof another claim to fame is that the principal benefactor of Yale University is buried in the churchyard.
The evening saw us ensconced in our convivial lodgings in Llandudno, where we enjoyed a hearty supper and games to follow.
On Wednesday we visited Mike Woods, an archaeologist who has advised our Pendle Archaeology Group (PAG), at Brynn Celli Ddu where he took us on a tour of a significant Neolithic burial chamber, surrounded by a ditch, with an imposing entrance way. Mike has been busy excavating in the area and we hope to hear more about this later. Moving forward again in time we then visited Penmon Priory built on a 6th C. site with stunning carvings around the doorways and arches, reputedly some of the best Norman and Romanesque carving in N. Wales. There is also a most remarkable dovecote said to be on e of the largest and remarkable constructed in Britain. Across the water to 13th C. Beaumaris Castle and lunch at a local hostelry. Beaumaris was the last of Edward 1st’s great fortresses and due to insurrection by those north of the border was never fully completed.
Back to Llandudno and another social evening before travelling to the Roman fort of Segontium above Caernarfon the following morning. After experiencing the might of Caernarfon Castle, yet another unfinished project of Edward’s, we visited St Winifede’s Well and Chapel at Holywell before we set off home again. But not before enjoying cream scones and a nice cuppa’.
All in all a super experience and a thankyou to Georgina for arranging everything, no small task when words like, herding and cats come to mind! We are looking forward to next year’s experience, where to next?
Banner Image: The Friends enjoy hearing an interesting raconteur about the iron and steel works at Brymbo, some of the objects here are from Deep Time. Attribution: Roger Grimshaw
Martholme Manor is a Grade 1 listed manor house dating back to the 13th century. A medieval gem hidden away in Great Harwood, members of Pendle Archaeology Group visited recently for a private tour of the house and grounds. The current, owners whose family have lovingly restored and refurbished this charming house over the past fifty years, welcomed us into their home.
Martholme Manor Today
Unsurprisingly, the house has undergone many C16 and C17 alterations and additions. ‘T’ shaped in plan, it has a timber framed kitchen range which was stone clad in 1577. Try not to miss the Elizabethan gatehouse, walled outer courtyard and dry moat. Equally the Hesketh arms on a stone panel on the gatehouse are certainly worth a viewing.
Back inside the hall, two lovely arched doorways (possibly mediaeval) are thought to be two of three serving doors for the Hall. Hidden by a large screen (a screen passage), this would have acted in the same way as restaurant doors do today.
In the East wing, parts of the building show the original timber frames in a plastered wall. We saw king trusses, stone plinths, chamfered mullion windows, a deeply recessed fireplace and a bressumer (load bearing) beam in the loft.
Leaving after a welcome cup of tea, we climbed up onto the railway viaduct and saw the meander of the Calder river and viewed Martholme from above. Set in what was the Manor of Great Harwood we were accompanied by swallows (or were they house martins?) swifts and a heron.
A very pleasant afternoon indeed.
Did you know?
In order that travellers could be seen approaching from a downstairs window, the road to the entrance was deliberately offset. Was this in order that the gatekeeper could be gainfully employed whilst on the lookout for guests?
The current owners can still remember Pevsner’s visit to assess the building which must have been an exciting ocassion.
Partially filled in, the moat still overflows during periods of heavy rain.
Why not join us at a future event? We really are a friendly bunch.
Banner Image: Gatehouse to Martholme Manor. Attribution: Ian Fairclough. GHHS
For free access to the museum and gardens and reduced admission to our day time and evening talks: